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The purpose of this study is to develop a scale unique to our culture, concerning individual instrument performance anxiety of the students who are getting instrument training in the Department of Music Education. In the study, the descriptive research model is used and qualitative research techniques are utilized. The study population consists of the students attending the 23 universities which has Music Education Department. The sample of the study consists of 438 girls and 312 boys, totally 750 students who are studying in the Department of Music Education of randomly selected 10 universities. As a result of the explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses that were performed, a one-dimensional structure consisting of 14 items was obtained. Also, t-scores and the coefficient scores of total item correlation concerning the distinguishing power of the items, the difference in the scores of the set of lower and upper 27% was calculated, and it was observed that the items are distinguishing as a result of both analyses. Of the scale, Cronbach's alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .94, and test-retest reliability coefficient was calculated as .93. As a result, a valid and reliable assessment and evaluation instrument that measures the exam performance anxiety of the students studying in the Department of Music Education, has been developed.
Anxiety is a universal phenomenon which people experience once or a few times during lives. It was accepted as concern for the future or as an unpleasant emotional experience regarding probable hitches of the events (Di Tomasso & Gosch, 2002).
In general, the occasions on which negative feelings are experienced cause anxiety to arise (Baltaş and Baltaş, 2000). People also feel anxious in dangerous situations. Anxiety may lead a person to be creative, while it may have hindering characteristics. Anxiety is that an individual considers him/herself incapable in an environment which is threatening or challenging. Individual focuses on undesirable consequences of his/her personal incapabilities in the course of an occasion s/he faces. Anxiety is not developed by events, far from it, the irrational beliefs of people give rise to anxiety. That’s to say, what is important is the meaning attributed to that occasion (Wilde, 1995).
In addition, anxiety is also defined as the mental condition showing itself with the bodily symptoms of the tension arising from strong negative feelings, danger to come and expecting a disaster. Even though it is good from time to time, too extreme and uncontrollable anxiety weakens the individual and can make him/her incapable of doing things which normally s/he can do (Masch and Wolfe, 2002). While the common bodily reactions of a person who reports that s/he is anxious may have rapid heartbeat, shivering, hoarse voice, extreme wetting, outer appearance of an anxious person represents a person who want to lend a hand to everything but cannot choose what to do. His/Her face reflects that s/he is in panic and who needs urgent help (Baltaş and Baltaş, 2000).
Performance anxiety which is defined as anxiety state related to fail control one’s acts in the presence of other people or for fear of making a mistake (Cox and Kenardy, 1993), Salmon (1999) named the performance anxiety, which was called in several names in previous literature, as the anxiety for musical performance and defined it as an individual experiences anxiety with the thought that his/her performance before the audience will not be good regardless of his/her education, musical talent and making any preparations (Fehm and Schmidt, 2006).
The primary occasions in which anxiety for musical performance are likely to be experienced are activities where students exhibit their performance by individual instruments. These activities can sometimes include various individual stage performances, while exams for individual instruments can be the occasions where this situation is experienced. Since assessment stage of the subject is based on individual performance, the exam for the subject of individual instrument in which psychomotor behaviors are exhibited is an exam which students take and requires students to show performance before an audience. Students may get into a flap as being watched by others and the fear of not being liked while they show their performances; thus they may display a number of bodily, mental, emotional and reactive symptoms of anxiety. This may prevent them from doing well in the exams and they may not show the performance they desire. This situation, which is called exam anxiety in the literature, is, according to Zeidner (1998), defined as the multi-dimensional symptoms referred as the whole of phenomenological, psychological and behavioral reactions that result with failure or the expectation of a negative result in an exam or in a similar assessment.
The exam anxiety lessens student success at the stage of evaluating their performances because the most important dimensions of music teaching are the activities of playing/singing, which affects student’s attitude towards the subject and music and also influences their positive self-concept (Kocabaş, 2002). The exam anxiety experienced negatively affect the educational process inasmuch as students’ success in the exams. Student’s learning only to play correctly due to exam anxiety instead of musical or technical components s/he must acquire in the process of instrument training, leads to fail to sufficiently acquire the psychomotor behaviors which s/he is expected to. The process of instrument training is a significant element in music teaching. Thus, anxiety which students experience in the exams and the reflections of this situation in the process of instrument training will indirectly affect the students’ academic success and perhaps will even decrease their self-confidence in their professional lives in teaching.
In this context, the necessity that in music, the students’ anxieties during the individual instrument performances which is the primary occasions in which anxiety for performance can be experienced and where students’ psychomotor behaviors come into prominence was felt and it was thought that “Individual Instrument Performance Exam Anxiety Scale” had to be brought in the literature.
In this research which was carried out to perceive the necessity to measure the students’ anxieties during the individual instrument exam; we aimed to develop an “Individual Instrument Performance Exam Anxiety Scale” (IIPEAS), in which the necessary analyses and validity-reliability studies were conducted, and cognitive, behavioral and physiological reasons forming the anxiety were assessed, and which is authentic to the literature and to our culture.
In the research, descriptive research model was used and qualitative research tehcniques were utilized. Target population of the study are the students who study at 23 universities where department of music education is present. Sample of the research is formed of 750 students in total, including 438 females and 312 males, who are studying at department of music education of the randomly selected 10 universities.
In consequence of the explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses carried out, a unidimensional construct formed of 14 items was obtained. In addition, t values regarding the differences in the item scores of the sub and super groups of 27% concerning the differential power of the items and item total correlation coefficients were calculated, and as a result of both analyses it was observed that the items were distinguishing. Internal consistency Cronbach Alpha coefficient of the scale was calculated as .94 and test-retest reliability coefficient, on the other hand, as .93.
As a consequence, in this research, it was revealed that this scale, developed for music education of the students in our country, is valid and reliable to measure the students’ anxiety for individual instrument performance exam. It is thought that this scale will make contribution to the studies of both the researchers and the instructors carrying out the subject of individual instrument. Besides, it is also thought that this study will propose professional solutions in coping with the exam anxiety negatively affecting the performances of the students taking instrument training and will contribute to the planning of psychological aids.
International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education
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