General Disaster Preparedness Belief Scale Using the Health Belief Model as a Theoretical Framework: Reliability and Validity Measures

Ebru Inal, Kerim Hakan Altintas, Nuri Dogan


Disaster preparedness efforts focus predominantly on human behaviors. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is one of the oldest and most widely used modelsin which theory has been adapted from the behavioural sciences to health problems. The study aims to develop and test the psychometric properties of the HBM in relation to General Disaster Preparedness Belief (GDPB). The study was conducted in the city of Yalova among university staff in a Turkish University. A study group of 286 academic and administrative staff completed a HBM scale instrument containing 60 items covering issues related to GDPB. Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) was used for the psychometric evaluation and reliability was assessed using item–total correlations and Cronbach’s alpha coefficients using SPSS 19. The EFA extracted six factors that jointly accounted for 59.2% of variance observed namely; Self efficacy (8 items), Cues to action (5 items), perceived susceptibility (6 items), perceived barriers (6 items), perceived benefits (3 items) and perceived severity (3 items). Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the subscales ranged from 0.90 to 0.74.  The HBM scale for GDPB was found to be a valid and reliable tool. Findings from this study can be used to guide intervention aimed at informing and educating people about disaster preparedness.


Disaster; emergency; Health Belief Model; preparedness; scale

Full Text:



Akompab, D.K., Bi, P., Williams, S., Grant, J., Walker, I.A., & Augoustinos, M. (2013). Heat waves and climate change: Applying the Health Belief Model to identify predictors of risk perception and adaptive behaviors in Adelaide, Australia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 10 (6): 2164-2184.

Armaş, I., & Avram, E. (2008). Patterns and trends in the perception of seismic risk. Case study: Bucharest Municipality/Romania. Natural Hazards, 44(1):147-61.

Becker, J., Paton, D., Johnston, D., et al. (2013). Salient beliefs about earthquake hazards and household preparedness. Risk Anal, 33:1710–27.

Cattell, R.B. (1978). The scientific use of factor analysis. New York: Plenum.

Child, D. (2006). The essentials of factor analysis. Continuum, London.

Davis, L.L. (1992). Instrument review: Getting the most from a panel of experts. Applied Nursing Research, 5 (4):194-197.

Donahue, A., & Joyce, P. (2001). A framework for analyzing emergency management with an application to federal budgeting. Public Administration Review, 61(6): 728-740.

Ejeta, L.T, Ardalan, A., & Paton, D. (2015). Application of behavioral theories to disaster and emergency health preparedness: A systematic review. PLOS Currents Disasters, 7, 2015.

Ersoy, S., & Kocak, A. (2015). Disasters and earthquake preparedness of children and schools in Istanbul, Turkey. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risks, 7(4): 1307-1336.

Fabrigar, L.R., Wegener, D.T., MacCallum, R.C., & Strahan, E.J. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 4 (3):272–299.

Fabrigar, L., Petty, R., Smith, S., et al. (2006). Understanding knowledge effects on attitude-behavior consistency: the role of relevance, complexity, and amount of knowledge. J Pers Soc Psychol, 90:556–77.

Glanz, K., Rimer, B.K., Viswanath, K., (eds). (2008). Health behavior and health education: theory, research, and practice. John Wiley & Sons.

Glanz, K., Rimer, B.K., Lewis, F.M. (2002). Health behavior and health education theory, research and practice. San Fransisco: Wiley & Sons.

Gokce, O., Ozden, S., & Demir, A. (2008). The statistical and spatial distribution of disasters in Turkey Disaster information inventory Ankara. Turkish Ministry of Public Works and Settlement, Disaster Research and Assessment Department (pp. 118).

Gregory, R.C, Philip, D.A, Erik, A.D.H., Robert, G.D., et al. (2006). Disaster medicine. U.S.A. Mosby Elsevier, pp.29.

Guha-Sapir, D., Hoyois, Ph., & Below, R. (2013). Annual disaster statistical review 2012: The numbers and trends. Brussels: CRED.

Guvenc, G., Aygul, A., & Acıkel, C.H. (2011). Health belief model scale for cervical cancer and Pap smear test: psychometric testing. Journal of advanced nursing, 67 (2): 428-437.

International Federation of Red Cross (IFRC) & Red Crescent Societies (RCS). (2013).World Disaster Report, Focus on technology and the future humanitarian action. Geneva.

Kline, R.B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.

McClure, J., Walkey, F., & Allen, M. (1999). When earthquake damage is seen as preventable: Attributions, locus of control and attitudes to risk. Applied Psychology, 48(2): 239-56.

McHorney, C.A., & Tarlov, A.R. (1995). Individual—patient monitoring in clinical practice: are available health status surveys adequate? Quality of Life Research, 4 (4): 293-307.

Mileti, D.S., & Darlington, J. (1995). Societal response to revised earthquake probabilities in the San Francisco Bay area. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 13(2):119-45.

Mulilis, J.P., & Duval, T.S. (1995). Negative threat appeals and earthquake preparedness: A person relative to event (PrE) model of coping with threat. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25(15), 1319-39.

Najafi, M., Ardalan, A., Akbarisari, A., Noorbala, A.A., & Jabbari, H. (2015). Demographic determinants of disaster preparedness behaviors amongst Tehran inhabitants, Iran. PLOS Currents Disasters, 7.

O'Connell, J.K., Price, J.H., Roberts, S.M., Jurs, S.G., & McKinley, R. (1985). Utilizing the Health Belief Model to predict dieting and exercising behavior of obese and nonobese adolescents. Health education quarterly, 12 (4): 343-351.

Olsson, U. (1979). Maximum likelihood estimation of the polychoric correlation coefficient. Psychometrika, 44(4), 443–460.

Orji, R., Vassileva, J., & Mandryk, R. (2012). Towards an effective health interventions design: an extension of the health belief model. Online journal of public health informatics, 4(3): ojphi.v4i3.4321.

Painter, J.E., Borba, C.P., Hynes, M., Mays, D., & Glanz, K. (2008). The use of theory in health behavior research from 2000 to 2005: a systematic review. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 35 (3):358-362.

Paton, D. (2006). Disaster resilience: Integrating individual, community, institutional and

environmental perspectives. Disaster resilience: An integrated approach, pp. 306-19.

Rosenstock, I.M. (1966). Why people use health services. Milbank Mem Fund Q. 44: 94-127.

Rosenstock, I.M, Strecher, V.J, & Becker, M.H. (1988). Social Learning Theory and the Health Belief Model. Health Education Quarterly, 15 (2):175–183.

Sharma, M., Romas, J.A. (2008). Theoretical foundations of health education and health promotion. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Teitler-Regev, S., Shahrabani, S., & Benzion, U. (2011). Factors affecting intention among students to be vaccinated against A/H1N1 Influenza: A health belief model approach. Advances in Preventive Medicine.

Thomas, T. N., Leander-Griffith, M., Harp, V., & Cioffi, J. P. (2015). Influences of preparedness knowledge and beliefs on household disaster preparedness. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 64(35), 965-971.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.