The Turkish Adaptation Study of the Gamification User Types Hexad Scale

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Özcan Erkan Akgün Murat Topal


The aim of this study is to adapt the Gamification User Types Hexad Scale, which is developed by Tondello, Wehbe, Diamond, Busch, Marczewski and Nacke (2016) into Turkish context. Original scale consists of six sub-dimensions, each of which consist of four items. Name of the sub-dimensions are “Free spirit”, “Socializer”, “Achiever”, “Philanthropists”, “Player” and “Disruptor”. The adaptation of the instrument was carried out by translation, linguistic equivalence, validity and reliability studies. Translation to Turkish of the scale was made by the researchers. A preliminary form was formed by taking the opinions of a total of seven experts that have well English proficiency. Two of them from the department of ELT (English language teaching), one of them from Educational measurement & evaluation, one of them from Turkish language teaching, one of them from education psychology, and two of them were educational technology. For linguistic equivalence the form was applied to 30 ELT students. The correlation analysis show that the linguistic equivalence of the scale had a high degree of correlation between the Turkish and English forms. The Turkish form was applied to 452 university students enrolled at Sakarya University, Faculty of Education. The results obtained for confirmatory factor analysis and reliability analyses indicate that the Turkish version of the scale is valid and reliable. It is suggested to be used in gamification studies especially finding out the effects of types of users related to features of gamification.

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How to Cite
Akgün, Özcan, & Topal, M. (2018). The Turkish Adaptation Study of the Gamification User Types Hexad Scale. International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education, 5(3), 389-402. Retrieved from
Author Biography

Özcan Erkan Akgün, İstanbul Medeniyet University

İstanbul Medeniyet University, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Computer & Instructional Technologies