Main Article Content
This study presents a culturally and psychometrically sound instrument of perceived school counselor support among Turkish high school students. The study has been framed using American School Counseling Association’s Mindsets and Behaviors for Students Success Model to create a valuable instrument that measures students’ perceptions of their school counselors’ support in a different culture, society, and education system. The results of this study supported the theoretical based Perceived School Counselor Support Scale long and short forms providing initial and strong evidence based on internal structure and relations to other variables. Internal consistency estimates on subscales ranged from good to strong.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council of Measurement in Education. (2014). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
American School Counselor Association. (2003). The ASCA national model: A framework for school counseling programs. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American School Counselor Association. (2005). The ASCA national model: A framework for school counseling programs. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American School Counselor Association. (2012). The ASCA National Model: A framework for school counseling programs (3rd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Author.
American School Counselor Association. (2014a). The ASCA national model: A framework for school counseling programs. Alexandria, VA: Author
American School Counselor Association. (2014b). Mindsets and behaviors for student success: K-12 college- and career-readiness standards for every student. Alexandria, VA: Author.
Balkin, R. S. (2014). Principles of quantitative research in counseling: A humanistic perspective. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, 53, 240 - 248. https://doi.10.1002/j.2161-1939.2014.00059.x
Balkin, R. S., & Schmit, E. L. (2016). Using the crisis stabilization scale to evaluate progress for adolescents in crisis. Journal of Child and Adolescent Counseling, 2, 33-41. doi: 10.1080/23727810.2015.1134009
Blum, R. W., McNeely, C., & Nonnemaker, J. (2002). Vulnerability, risk, and protection. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31, 28-39. doi:10.1016/S1054-139X(02)00411-1
Cavazos Vela, J., Hinojosa, Y., Karaman, M.A. (2018). Evaluation of the Short Grit Scale with Latinx college students. The Journal of Counseling Research and Practice,3(1), 31-42.
Clark, M. A., & Breman, J. C. (2009). School counselor inclusion: A collaborative model to provide academic and SocialEmotional support in the classroom setting. Journal of Counseling & Development, 87, 6-11. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6678.2009.tb00543.x
Dimitrov, D. (2012). Statistical methods for validation of assessment scale data in counseling and related fields. Alexandria, VA: Wiley.
Doğan, S. (2000). The historical development of counseling in Turkey. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 22, 57-67. doi:10.1023/A:1005474126819
Ergüner-Tekinalp, B., Leuwerke, W., & Terzi, Ş. (2009). Emergence of national school counseling models: Views from the United States and Turkey. Journal of School Counseling, 7(33), 1-30.
Erkan, S. (2006). Okul psikolojik danışma ve rehberlik programlarının hazırlanması [Preparing school counseling and guidance programs]. Ankara, TR: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.
Ferguson, R. F., & Lamback, S. (2014). Creating pathways to prosperity: A blueprint for action. Report issued by the Pathways to Prosperity Project at the Harvard Graduate School of Education and the Achievement Gap Initiative at Harvard University. Retrieved from http://www.agi.harvard.edu/pathways/CreatingPathwaystoProsperityReport2014.pdf
Fezler, B., & Brown, C. (2011). The international model for school counseling programs. Retrieved from http://www.aassa.com/uploaded/Educational_Research/US_Department_of_State/Counseling_Standards/International_Counseling_Model_Handbook.pdf
Flesch, R. (1948). A new readability yardstick. Journal of Applied Psychology, 32, 221–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0057532
Fioravanti-Bastos, A. C. M., Cheniaux, E., & Landeira-Fernandez, J. (2011). Development and validation of a short - form version of the Brazilian state - trait anxiety inventory. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 24, 485 - 494. https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-79722011000300009
Haktanir, A., Lenz, A. S., Can, N., & Watson, J. C. (2016). Development and evaluation of Turkish language versions of three positive psychology assessments. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 38, 286–297. doi:10.1007/s10447-016-9272-9
Horn, J. L. (1965). A rationale and test for the number of factors in factor analysis. Psychometrika, 30, 179–185. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02289447
Karaman, M. A., Cavazos Vela, J., & Lu, M. T. P. (2018). Examining the Teacher Support Scale Revised and Counselor Support Scale with Latina/o students. Adıyaman University Journal of Educational Sciences, 8, 1-20. doi: 10.17984/adyuebd.357433
Karaman, M.A., Balkin, R.S., & Juhnke, G. J. (2018). The Turkish adaptation of the Juhnke-Balkin life balance inventory Turkish Form. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 51, 141-150. doi: 10.1080/07481756.2017.1308226
Lapan, R. T., Poynton, T., Marcotte, A., Marland, J., & Milam, C. M. (2017). College and career readiness counseling support scales. Journal of Counseling & Development, 95, 77-86. doi:10.1002/jcad.12119
Ledesma, R. D., & Valero-Mora, P. (2007). Determining the number of factors to retain in EFA: An easy-to-use computer program for carrying out parallel analysis. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 12, 1–11.
Leech, N. L., Barrett, K. C., & Morgan, G. A. (2005). SPSS for intermediate statistics: Use and interpretation. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
MacCallum, R. C., Widaman, K. F., Preacher, K. J., & Hong, S. (2001). Sample size in factor analysis: The role of model error. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 36, 611-637. doi: 10.1207/S15327906MBR3604_06
Moran, G. & Cutler, B.L. (1997). Bogus publicity items and the contingency between awareness and media-induced pretrial prejudice. Law and Human Behavior 21, 339-344. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024846917038
National Ministry of Education. (2006). İlköğretim ve ortaöğretim kurumları sınıf rehberliği programı [K-12 schools class guidance programs]. Retrieved from https://orgm.meb.gov.tr/alt_sayfalar/sinif_reh_progrm.html on July 29, 2018
O’Connor, B. P. (2000). SPSS and SAS programs for determining the number of components using parallel analysis and Velicer’s MAP test. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 32, 396–402. https://doi.org/10.3758/bf03200807
Ohrt, J. H., Limberg, D., Bordonada, T. M., Griffith, C., & Sherrell, R. S. (2016). Adolescents' perceptions of their school counselors' impact. Journal of Child and Adolescent Counseling, 2, 1-15. doi:10.1080/23727810.2015.1133996
Parker, M. M., & Ray, D. C. (2017). School counseling needs of Latino students. Journal of School Counseling, 15(16), 1-30.
Poynton, T. A., & Lapan, R. T. (2017). Aspirations, achievement, and school counselors' impact on the college transition. Journal of Counseling & Development, 95, 369-377. doi:10.1002/jcad.12152
Raubenheimer, J. (2004). An item selection procedure to maximize scale reliability and validity. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 30, 59-64. doi: 10.4102/sajip.v30i4.168
Roe, S. (2014). “Put it out there that you are willing to talk about anything”: The role of school counselors in providing support to gay and bisexual youth. Professional School Counseling, 17, 153-162.
Sarı, H.İ. & Karaman, M.A. (2018). Gaining a better understanding of General Mattering Scale: An application of classical test theory and item response theory. International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education, 5, 668-681. doi:10.21449/ijate.453337
Schmidt, F. L., Le, H., & Ilies, R. (2003). Beyond alpha: An empirical examination of the effects of different sources of measurement error on reliability estimates for measures of individual differences constructs. Psychological Methods, 8, 206-224.
Schimmel, C. J. (2008). School counseling in West Virginia: An examination of school counselors and implementation of WV policy 2315 (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from Theses, Dissertations and Capstones (Paper 320).
Seligman, M. E. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. New York, NY: Free Press.
Suldo, S. M., & Shaunessy-Dedrick, E. (2013). The psychosocial functioning of high school students in academically rigorous programs. Psychology in the Schools, 50, 823–843. doi:10.1002/pits.21708
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education.
Terzi, Ş., Tekinalp, B. E., & Leuwerke, W. (2011). Psikolojik danışmanların okul psikolojik danışma ve rehberlik hizmetleri modeline dayalı olarak geliştirilen kapsamlı psikolojik danışma ve rehberlik programını değerlendirmeleri [The evaluation of comprehensive guidance and counseling programs based on school counseling and guidance services model by school counselors]. Pegem Eğitim ve Öğretim Dergisi, 1(1), 51-60.
Ünal, A., & Ünal, E. (2010). A case study on the perception of the school counselor by students and teachers. Journal of Human Sciences, 7(2), 919-945.
Vela, J. C., Flamez, B., Sparrow, G. S., & Lerma, E. (2016). Understanding support from school counselors as predictors of Mexican American adolescents’ college-going beliefs. Journal of School Counseling, 14(7), 1-28.
Vela, J. C., Zamarripa, M., Balkin, R., Johnson, M., & Smith, R. (2013). Understanding Latina/o students' perceptions of high school counselors and acculturation as predictors of enrollment in AP courses. Professional School Counseling, 17, 142-152. doi:10.5330/prsc.17.1.a32q312p27351256
Werner, C., & Schermelleh-Engel, K. (2010). Deciding between competing models: Chi-square difference tests. Goethe University. Available online: https://perma.cc/2RTR-8XPZ (accessed on13 July 2018)
White, M., & Epston, D. (1990). Narrative means to therapeutic ends. New York, NY: W. W. Norton.
Yeşilyaprak, B. (2005). Eğitimde rehberlik hizmetleri: Gelişimsel bir yaklaşım [Guidance services in education: A developmental perspective]. Ankara, TR: Nobel Yayın Dağıtım.
Yılmaz, F & Demir, S. (2016). The validity and reliability study of revised School Climate Teacher Survey’s Turkish version. International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education, 3(1), 85-100.
Young, F.W., Valero-Mora, P., & Friendly, M. (2006). Visual statistics seeing data with dynamic interactive graphics. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.