Assessing time knowledge in children aged 10 to 11 years Assessing time knowledge

Main Article Content

Nicola Brace https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2928-7327 Clare Doran Janet Pembery Emma Fitzpatrick Rosalind Herman https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5732-9999

Abstract

The acquisition of time knowledge involves learning how to read clocks, estimate time, read dates and learn about temporal sequences. Evidence suggests that many of these competencies are acquired by 10 years of age although not all children may follow this developmental path. The main purpose of this study was to collect normative data for a screening tool that assesses time knowledge. These data identify the prevalence and pattern of difficulties with time knowledge among a UK sample of Year 6 pupils (aged 10 to 11 years). The Time Screening Assessment tool (Doran, Dutt & Pembery, 2015), designed to assess time knowledge, was administered individually to a sample of 79 children. Findings revealed a median overall score of 32 out of a maximum score of 36. 25% of children performed at or close to ceiling, however seven children scored more than -1.5 standard deviations below the mean. The value of these findings to practitioners working with children in schools is discussed.

Article Details

How to Cite
Brace, N., Doran, C., Pembery, J., Fitzpatrick, E., & Herman, R. (2019). Assessing time knowledge in children aged 10 to 11 years. International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education, 6(4), 580-591. Retrieved from http://ijate.net/index.php/ijate/article/view/786
Section
IJATE_Articles
Author Biographies

Nicola Brace, University of London

City, University of London, School of Health Sciences, Division of Language and Communication Science UK

Clare Doran, Bedfordshire Community Health Service

Bedfordshire Community Health Service, UK

Janet Pembery, Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust

Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust, UK

Emma Fitzpatrick, University of London

City, University of London, School of Health Sciences, Division of Language and Communication Science UK

Rosalind Herman, University of London

City, University of London, School of Health Sciences, Division of Language and Communication Science UK

References

Andersson, U. (2008). Mathematical competencies in children with different types of learning difficulties. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 48–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.100.1.48.

Bryan, K., Freer, J. & Furlong, C. (2007). Language and communication difficulties in juvenile offenders. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 42, 505–520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13682820601053977.

Burny, E., Valcke, M. & Desoete, A. (2009). Towards an agenda for studying learning and instruction focusing on time‐related competences in children. Educational Studies, 35, 481–492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03055690902879093.

Burny, E., Valcke, M. & Desoete, A. (2012). Clock reading: An underestimated topic in children with mathematics difficulties. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45, 351–360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022219411407773.

Doran, C., Dutt, S. & Pembery, J. (2015). Time Matters: A Practical Resource to Develop Time Concepts and Self-Organisational Skills in Older Children and Young People. London: Speechmark.

Dutt, S. & Doran, C. (2013). The meaning of time. Bulletin: the official magazine of the Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists, February, 11.

Friedman, W.J. (1991). The development of children's memory for the time of past events. Child Development, 62, 139–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130710.

Friedman, W.J. (1992). Children's time memory: The development of a differentiated past. Cognitive Development, 7, 171-187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0885-2014(92)90010-O.

Friedman, W.J. (2005). Developmental and cognitive perspectives on humans’ sense of the times of past and future events. Learning and Motivation, 36, 145–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lmot.2005.02.005.

Friedman, W.J. & Laycock, F. (1989). Children's analog and digital clock knowledge. Child Development 60, 357–371. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130982.

Hollmann, C.M. & McNamara, J.R. (1999). Considerations in the use of active and passive parental consent procedures. The Journal of Psychology, 133, 141–156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223989909599729.

Labrell, F., Mikaeloff, Y., Perdry, H. & Dellatolas, G. (2016). Time knowledge acquisition in children aged 6 to 11 years and its relationship with numerical skills. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 143, 1–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2015.10.005.

Quartier, V. (2008). Le développement de la temporalité: Théorie et instrument de mesure du temps notionnel chez l’enfant [Temporality development: Theory and instrument to measure notional time in children]. Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l’Enfant, 100, 76–85.

Quartier, V., Zimmermann, G. & Nashat, S. (2010). Sense of time in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Swiss Journal of Psychology, 69, 7–14.

Siegler, R.S. & McGilly, K. (1989). Strategy choices in children's time-telling. In: I. Levin & D. Zakay (Eds.) Time and human cognition: A life span perspective (pp.185–218). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers.

Williams, D., Boucher, J., Lind, S. & Jarrold, C. (2013). Time-based and event-based prospective memory in autism spectrum disorder: The roles of executive function and theory of mind, and time-estimation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 1555–1567. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1703-9.