Assessing time knowledge in children aged 10 to 11 years Assessing time knowledge

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Nicola Brace Clare Doran Janet Pembery Emma Fitzpatrick Rosalind Herman


The acquisition of time knowledge involves learning how to read clocks, estimate time, read dates and learn about temporal sequences. Evidence suggests that many of these competencies are acquired by 10 years of age although not all children may follow this developmental path. The main purpose of this study was to collect normative data for a screening tool that assesses time knowledge. These data identify the prevalence and pattern of difficulties with time knowledge among a UK sample of Year 6 pupils (aged 10 to 11 years). The Time Screening Assessment tool (Doran, Dutt & Pembery, 2015), designed to assess time knowledge, was administered individually to a sample of 79 children. Findings revealed a median overall score of 32 out of a maximum score of 36. 25% of children performed at or close to ceiling, however seven children scored more than -1.5 standard deviations below the mean. The value of these findings to practitioners working with children in schools is discussed.

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How to Cite
Brace, N., Doran, C., Pembery, J., Fitzpatrick, E., & Herman, R. (2019). Assessing time knowledge in children aged 10 to 11 years. International Journal of Assessment Tools in Education, 6(4), 580-591. Retrieved from
Author Biographies

Nicola Brace, University of London

City, University of London, School of Health Sciences, Division of Language and Communication Science UK

Clare Doran, Bedfordshire Community Health Service

Bedfordshire Community Health Service, UK

Janet Pembery, Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust

Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust, UK

Emma Fitzpatrick, University of London

City, University of London, School of Health Sciences, Division of Language and Communication Science UK

Rosalind Herman, University of London

City, University of London, School of Health Sciences, Division of Language and Communication Science UK


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