Anticholinesterase activities from aqueous extract of different plant parts of Erica manipuliflora

Çiğdem Kuş, Mehmet Emin Duru, Meltem Taş, Selçuk Küçükaydın


Erica species are generally spread along the coasts of Turkey. There are five Erica species in these regions, namely; E. arborea, E. manipuliflora, E, bocquetii, E. sicula subsp. Libanotica and E. spiculifolia salisb. Among these species, E. manipuliflora is commonly found in Muğla and southwest part of Turkey. Erica species are called as "funda", "püren" or "tree heath" locally in Turkey and contain biologically active compounds such as flavonoids, coumarins and triterpenoids. Since ancient times, these species have been used as herbal tea and folk medicine by local people in Turkey. In folk medicine, they are used for diuretic, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory purposes. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is useful for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In this study anticholinesterase activity of aqueous extracts of leaves, flowers and aerial parts of E. manipuliflora have been investigated spectrophotometrically. The aerial parts extract of E. manipuliflora among the extracts (70.10%) showed the best inhibitory activity against AChE enzyme at 200 µg/mL concentrations. The extracts of leaves and flowers showed 44.42%, 49.91% inhibitions against acetylcholinesterase enzyme at 200 µg/mL concentrations respectively.The flowers extract of E. manipuliflora (80.41%) exhibited the best BChE inhibitory activity at 200 µg/mL concentrations. At the same concentration, the galantamine showed 82.23% inhibitory activity. Leaves and aerial parts extracts showed 15,75%, 31.62% inhibitory activity against BChE respectively. Hence, aerial parts of E. manipuliflora may be useful as a moderate anticholinesterase agent, and flowers of E. manipuliflora may be useful as the butyrylcholinesterase agent.


Erica, Erica manipuliflora, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, enzyme inhibition

Full Text:



Christenhusz, M. J., & Byng, J. W. (2016). The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase. Phytotaxa,261(3), 201-217.

Güvenç, A., & Kendir, G. (2007). The leaf anatomy of some Erica taxa native to Turkey. Fabad Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 32, 121-125.

Baytop ,T. (1999). Türkiye’de Bitkiler ile Tedavi Geçmişte ve Bugün. 2nd ed. İstanbul: Nobel Tıp Kitabevleri.

Marquez-Garcia, B., Fernandez, M.A., & Cordoba, F. (2009). Phenolics composition in Erica sp. differentially exposed to metal pollution in the Iberian Southwestern pyritic belt. Bioresource technology,100, 446–451.

Guendouze-Bouchefa, N., Madani, K., Chibane, M., Boulekbache-Makhlouf, L., Hauchard, D., Kiendrebeogo, M., Stevigny, C., Okusa, P.N., & Duez, P. (2015). Phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of three Ericaceae from Algeria. Industrial Crops and Products, 70, 459–466.

Reyes, R. M., Martin-Cordero, C., Gonzalez, M. J., Toro Sainz, M. V. & Alarcón de la Lastra, C. (1996). Antiulcer Activity in Rats by Plavonoids of Erica andevalensis Cabezudo-Rivera. Phytotherapy Research, 10, 300-303.

Harnafi, H., Bouanani, N.H., Aziz, M., Caid, H.S., Ghalim, N., & Amrani, S. (2007). The hypolpidaemic activity of aqueous Erica multiflora L. flowers extract in Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidaemic rats: a comparison with fenofibrate. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 190(1), 156–160.

Rios, J.L., Recio, M.C., & Villar, A. (1987). Antimicrobial activity of selected plants employed in the Spanish Mediterranean area. The Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 21, 139–152.

Küpeli Akkol, E., Yeşilada, E., & Güvenç, A. (2008). Valuation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Erica species native to Turkey. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 116, 251–257.

Sadki, C., Hacht, B., Souliman, A., & Atmani, F. (2010). Acute diuretic activity of aqueous Erica multiflora flowers and Cynodon dactylon rhizomes extracts in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 128, 352–356.

Nazemiyeh, H., Bahadori, F., Delazar, A., Ay, M., Topçu, G., Nahar, L., Majinda, R.R.T. & Sarker, S. D. (2008). Antioxidant phenolic compounds from the leaves of Erica Arborea (Ericaceae). Natural Product Research, 22(16), 1385–1392.

Enkegaard, A., Kryger, P., & Boelt, B. (2016). Determinants of nectar production in heather. Journal of Apicultural Research, 55(1), 100–106.

Baltrušaitytė, V., Venskutonis, P. R., & Čeksteryte, V. (2007). Radical scavenging activity of different floral origin honey and beebread phenolic extracts. Food Chemistry, 101, 502-514.

Işık, A.T. (2012). Her Yönüyle Alzheimer Hastalığı- (Geriatrik Sendromlar Dizisi 5), Türkiye, Som Kitap.

Mukherjeea, P. K., Kumarb, V., Malb, M., & Houghtona, P.P. (2007). Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from plants. Phytomedicine, 14, 289–300.

Orhan, I., Sener, B., Choudhary, M.I., & Khalid, A. (2004). Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Turkish medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 91, 57–60.

Ingkaninan, K., Temkitthawon, P., Chuenchom, K., Yuyaem, T., & Thongnoi, W. (2003). Screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity in plants used in Thai traditional rejuvenating and neurotonic remedies. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 89, 261–264.

Dias, P. Falé, P. L., Martins, A., & Rauter, A. P. (2015). Digestibility and Bioavailability of the Active Components of Erica australis L. Aqueous Extracts and Their Therapeutic Potential as Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

Ellman, G.L., Courtney, K.D., Andres, V., & Featherston, R.M. (1961). A new and rapid colorimetric determination of acetylcholinesterase activity. Biochemical Pharmacology, 7, 88–95.

Öztürk, M. (2012). Anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities of Savoury (Saturejathymbra L.) with identified major terpenes of the essential oil. Food Chemistry, 134, 48–54.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.