Chemical Compositions, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil and Extracts of Lamiaceae Family (Ocimum basilicum and Thymbra spicata) from Turkey
Lamiaceae has numerous proven biological properties. Our aim was to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and chemical composition of essential oil and extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Thymbra spicata. For this purpose, we used four Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptomyces murinus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis), four Gram-negative (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Yersina enterocolitica, Proteus vulgaris), a yeast (Candida albicans) and a mold (Aspergilus niger). Essential oil and the extracts of Thymbra spicata have the most effective and significant activity against the bacteria, yeast and mold. Antioxidant activity of the Thymbra spicata was higher than Ocimum basilicum. Phenolic compounds have good properties like antioxidants acting as reducing agent, hydrogen donors and singlet oxygen quenchers. Fourteen phenolic compounds were analyzed and some phenolics were detected in Ocimum basilicum and Thymbra spicata. These results suggest that Lamiaceae is rich in phenolic compounds and has antimicrobial and antioxidant properties as well. Therefore, it can be a useful herbal source in food and drug industries.
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