Chemical Compositions, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil and Extracts of Lamiaceae Family (Ocimum basilicum and Thymbra spicata) from Turkey

Güler İnci Tanrıkulu, Ömer Ertürk, Ceren Yavuz, Zehra Can, Hilal Ebru Çakır


Lamiaceae has numerous proven biological properties. Our aim was to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and chemical composition of essential oil and extracts of Ocimum basilicum and Thymbra spicata. For this purpose, we used four Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptomyces murinus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis), four Gram-negative (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Yersina enterocolitica, Proteus vulgaris), a yeast (Candida albicans) and a mold (Aspergilus niger). Essential oil and the extracts of Thymbra spicata have the most effective and significant activity against the bacteria, yeast and mold. Antioxidant activity of the Thymbra spicata was higher than Ocimum basilicum. Phenolic compounds have good properties like antioxidants acting as reducing agent, hydrogen donors and singlet oxygen quenchers. Fourteen phenolic compounds were analyzed and some phenolics were detected in Ocimum basilicum and Thymbra spicata. These results suggest that Lamiaceae is rich in phenolic compounds and has antimicrobial and antioxidant properties as well. Therefore, it can be a useful herbal source in food and drug industries.


Lamiaceae, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities, GC-MS, HPLC.

Full Text:



. Robbers, J., Speedie, M., & Tyler, V. (1996). Pharmacognosy and pharmacobiotechnology.

Williams and Wilkins, 1–14.

. Allen, K.L., Molan, P.C., & Reia, G.M. (1991). A survey of the antibacterial activity of some New Zeland honeys. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 43, 817-822.

. Mahasneh, A.M.A., Adel, M.A., & El-Oqlah, A.A.B. (1999). Antimicrobial activity of extracts of herbal plants used in the traditional medicine of Jordan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 64, 271–276.

. Tada, H., Murakami, Y., & Omoto T. (1996). Rosmarinic acid and related phenolics in hairy root cultures of Ocimum basilicum. Phytochemistry, 42, 431-434.

. Reuveni, R., Raviv, M., & Krasnovsky, A. (2002). Compost induces protection against

Fusarium oxysporum in sweet basil. Crop Protection, 21, 583-587.

. Baritaux, O., Richard, H., Touche, J., & Derbesy, M. (1992). Effects of drying and storage of herbs and spices on the essential oil. Part I. Basil, Ocimum basilicum L. Flavour Fragrance Journal, 7, 267–271.

. Lahariya, A. K., & Rao, J.T. (1979). In vitro antimicrobial studies of the essential oil of

Cyperus scariosus and Ocimum basilicum. Indian Drugs Journal, 16, 150–152.

. Dube, S., Upadhyay, P.D., & Tripathi, S.C. (1989). Antioxidant, physicochemical and insect-repelling activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum. Canadian Journal of Botany, 67, 2085–2087.

. Özcan, M. (1998). Inhibitory effects of spice extracts on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 strain. Zeitschrift für Lebensmitteluntersuchung und Forschung A, 207, 253–255.

. Baytop, T. (1997). A dictionary of vernacular names of wild plants of Turkey, Istanbul.

. Baytop, T. (Ed.) (1999). Türkiye’de bitkiler ile tedavi (treatment with plants in Turkey), Istanbul.

. Baser, K.H.C. (1993). Essential oils of Anatolian Labiatae: A profile. Acta Horticulture, 333, 217-238.

. Farag, R.S., Daw, Z.Y., Hewedi, F.M., & El-Baroty, G.S.A. (1989). Antimicrobial activityof some Egyptian spice essential oils. Journal of Food Protection, 52, 665–667.

. Bozin, B., Mimica-Dukic, N., Simin, N., & Anackov, G. (2006). Characterization of the volatile composition of essential oil of some Lamiaceae species and the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the entire oils. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 54, 1822- 1828.

. Adıgüzel, A., Güllüce, M., Şengül, M., Öğütücü, H., Şahin, F., & Karaman, İ. (2005) Antimicrobial effect of Ocimum bacilicum (Lamiateae) extract. Turkish Journal of Biology, 29, 155-160.

. Hammer, K.A., Carson, C.F., & Riley, T.V. (1999). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 86, 985-990.

. Ronald M.A. (1990). Microbiologia compania editorial continental S.A. de C.B., Mexico, DF.

. Vander, B.D.A., & Vietinck, A.J. (1991). Screening methods for antimicrobial and antiviral agents from higger plants, London.

. Singleton, V.L., & Rossi, J.L. (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Society of Enology and Viticulture, 16, 144-158.

. Fukumoto, L.R., & Mazza, G.(2000). Assessing antioxidant and prooxidant activities of phenolic compounds. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 48, 3597-3604.

. Julkunen-Tıtto, R. (1985). Phenolic constituents in the leaves of northernwillows: methods for the analysis of certain phenolics. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 33, 213-217.

. Benzie, I.F.F., & Strain, J.J. (1999). Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: Direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration. In Methods in Enzymology, 299, 15-27.

. Can, Z., Yildiz, O., Şahin, H., Turumtay, E.A., Silici, S., & Kolayli, S. (2015). An investigation of Turkish honeys: their physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacites and phenolic profiles. Food Chemistry, 180, 133-141.

. Haznedaroglu, M. Z., Karabay, U., & Zeybek, U. (2001). Antimicrobial activity of Salvia tomentosa essential oil. Fitoterapia, 72, 829– 831.

. Tepe, B., Daferera, D., Sokmen, A., Sokmen, M., & Polissiou, M. (2005). Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and various extracts of Salvia tomentosa (Lamiaceae). Food Chemistry, 90, 333–340.

. Sahin, H., Akyuz-Turumtay, E., Yildiz, O., & Kolayli, S. (2015). Grayanotoxin-III detection and antioxidant activity of mad honey. International Journal of Food Properties, 18(12), 2665-2674.

. Djeridane, A., Yousfi, M., Nadjemi, B., Boutassouna, D., Stocker, P., & Vidal, N. (2006). Antioxidant activity of some Algerian medicinal plants extracts containing phenolic compounds. Food Chemistry, 97, 654–660.

. Vlase, L., Benedec, D., Hanganu, D., Damian, G., & Csillag, I. (2014). Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Molecules, 19, 5490-5507


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.