Determination of Some Heavy Metal Concentrations of Sage Tea with FAAS

Fevzi Kilicel, Hacer Sibel Karapinar, Ayşe Uğuz

Abstract


Herbal teas are blends based on the plant's roots, root hairs, branch shoots, aromatic parts of leaves, flowers, shells, fruits, or seeds that are prepared by drying aromatic parts in boiling water. Although plant teas are known to have many benefits in terms of health, they are an important threat to human life if they are exposed to some contamination due to misuse or overuse or uncontrolled production. A significant proportion of these exposures constitute heavy metals. The living environment of the plants is polluted with many harmful substances which arise from various sources. Factors such as the development of industry and increasing traffic, pesticides, industrial and household waste increase the heavy metal pollution. Considering the studies evaluating herbal teas in terms of heavy metal contents, it is seen that in herbal teas there are elements naturally found in plants such as Cu, Co, Zn, Mn, Fe and necessary for human health. However, some metals, such as Ni, Pb, Cd, As, Hg, which are poisonous, appear to be present when they reach certain levels. To prevent heavy metal accumulation and health problems caused by it, it is important to avoid heavy metal contamination in stages such as plant collection, production, packaging, storage and storage. If it is thought that the people use these unconsciously and uncontrollably, it is very important to make legal regulations and audits in this area.In this study, adequate quantities of sage tea (salvia officinalis) plants offered for sale in markets, and herbalist in Karaman were taken in sufficient quantities and analyzed by appropriate drying, milling and dissolution processes. The samples were prepared to be 2 parallel for each sample and were solutioned by wet burning method. The concentrations of the determined elements were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The amounts of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Mn, Mg, Fe and Ca were determined in all of the foods determined according to the results. Cr was not detected in the samples. Co and Cd exceeded the limits allowed in Europe and in Turkey.It should be noted that these foods can easily be contaminated due to factors such as the physical and chemical structure of the soil, agricultural activities, storage and packaging conditions. Moreover, it is important to consciously consume and make the necessary quality controls not to adversely affect public health.


Keywords


Sage tea, Heavy metal, FAAS, Karaman, Turkey

Full Text:

PDF

References


Şarışen, Ö., & Çalışkan, D. (2005). Fitoterapi: Bitkilerle Tedaviye Dikkat (!). Sted, 14(8), 182-187.

Kızılkeçili, Ö. (2007). Salvia crypthanta montbret & auchr ex bentham ve salvia pomifera l. türlerinin metanol, etanol ekstrelerinin ve uçucu yağlarının antibakterial, antifungal ve antitüberküloz aktivitelerinin tayini.

Arpadjan, S., Celik, G., Taşkesen, S., & Güçer, Ş. (2008). Arsenic, cadmium and lead in medicinal herbs and their fractionation. Food and chemical toxicology, 46(8), 2871-2875.

Ozturk, B. Y., Akkoz, C., Asikkutlu, B., & Gümüş, N. E. (2014). Fuzzy Logic Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution of Apa Dam Lake. Journal of Applied Biological Sciences, 8(3), 14-20.

World Health Organization. (2004). International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (Vol. 1). World Health Organization.

World Health Organization. (2004). The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard and guidelines to classification: 2004.

International Agency for Research on Cancer. (1991). Chlorinated drinking-water, chlorination by-products, some other halogenated compounds, cobalt and cobalt compounds. In Chlorinated drinking-water, chlorination by-products, some other halogenated compounds, cobalt and cobalt compounds.

World Health Organization. (1999). WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants (Vol. 2). World Health Organization.

Jacobson, K. B., & Turner, J. E. (1980). The interaction of cadmium and certain other metal ions with proteins and nucleic acids. Toxicology, 16(1), 1-37.

Stohs, S. J., & Bagghi, D. (2005). Oxidative Mechanisms in the Toxicity of Metal Ions. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 39(10), 1267-1268.

Abou-Arab, A. A. K., Kawther, M. S., El Tantawy, M. E., Badeaa, R. I., & Khayria, N. (1999). Quantity estimation of some contaminants in commonly used medicinal plants in the Egyptian market. Food Chemistry, 67(4), 357-363.

Markert, B. (1994). Plants as biomonitors-potential advantages and problems. Environmental Geochemistry and Health (United Kingdom).

Hina, B., Rizwani, G. H., & Naseem, S. (2011). Determination of toxic metals in some herbal drugs through atomic absorption spectroscopy. Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 24(3).

Musa, U., Waziri, M., & Hati, S. S. (2013). Explanatory Interaction Profile of Cd, Pb and Zn on the Relative Abundance of Fe as Response Variable in Drinking Water Quality Assessment. International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 3(4), 404.

Kabata-Pendias, A., & Mukherjee, A. B. (2007). Trace elements from soil to human. Springer Science & Business Media.

Stanojkovic-Sebic, A., Pivic, R., Josic, D., Dinic, Z., & Stanojkovic, A. (2015). Heavy Metals Content in Selected Medicinal Plants Commonly Used as. Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi, 21(3), 317-325.

Kastori, R., Petrović, N., & Arsenijević-Maksimović, I. (1997). Heavy metals and plants. Heavy Metals in the Environment, Novi Sad, 195-257.

Kloke, A., Sauerbeck, D. R., & Vetter, H. (1984). The contamination of plants and soils with heavy metals and the transport of metals in terrestrial food chains. In Changing metal cycles and human health (pp. 113-141). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Misra, S. G., & Mani, D. (1991). Soil pollution. Ashish Publishing House.

Schulze, E. D., Beck, E., & Müller-Hohenstein, K. (2005). Plant ecology.

Set, E., & Erkmen, O. (2014). Occurrence of aflatoxins in ground red chili pepper and pistachio nut. International journal of food properties, 17(10), 2322-2331.

Macrae, R., Robinson, R. K., & Sadler, M. J. (1993). Encyclopaedia of food science, food technology and nutrition.

Nielsen, F. H. (1984). Ultratrace elements in nutrition. Annual review of nutrition, 4(1), 21-41.

Fairweather-Tait, S. J. (1992). Bioavailability of trace elements. Food Chemistry, 43(3), 213-217.

Ozcan, M., Bagci, Y. A., & Dural, H. (1998). Chemical composition and mineral contents of edible wild plants consumed in Içel (Mersin). SU Sci. J, 15, 72-77.

Özcan, M. (2004). Mineral contents of some plants used as condiments in Turkey. Food chemistry, 84(3), 437-440.

Jabeen, S., Shah, M. T., Khan, S., & Hayat, M. Q. (2010). Determination of major and trace elements in ten important folk therapeutic plants of Haripur basin, Pakistan. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4(7), 559-566.

Akpanabiatu, M. I., Bassey, N. B., Udosen, E. O., & Eyong, E. U. (1998). Evaluation of some minerals and toxicants in some Nigerian soup meals. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 11(4), 292-297.

Macrae, R., Robinson, R. K., & Sadler, M. J. (1993). Encyclopaedia of food science, food technology and nutrition.

Başgel, S., & Erdemoğlu, S. B. (2006). Determination of mineral and trace elements in some medicinal herbs and their infusions consumed in Turkey. Science of the Total Environment, 359(1), 82-89.

Dghaim, R., Al Khatib, S., Rasool, H., & Ali Khan, M. (2015). Determination of heavy metals concentration in traditional herbs commonly consumed in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of environmental and public health, 2015.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.