Sequential Green Extraction of Caffeine and Catechins from Green Tea Sequential Green Extraction of Caffeine and Catechins from Green Tea

Main Article Content

Gönül Serdar Ezgi Demir Münevver Sökmen


Separation of caffeine and catechins from tea extracts usually requires conventional liquid-liquid extraction employing chloroform.  This work was planned to improve a green extraction technique to distunguish these important chemicals from green tea. Extraction of caffeine and catechins from Turkish green tea firstly employing MAE, and then to separate these compounds from each other using a SFE method were purpose of this study. Microwave assisted extraction was applied to extract tea components from green tea then i) conventional liquid-liquid extraction or ii) supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE) method was charged with the effective separation of caffeine and catechins. Initially, an ethanol: water mixture was used in a close microwave system under the particuler extraction situations of green tea samples (fresh, frozen or dried) picked up in three collection periods (first, second and third collection periods). MAE of tea samples was exerted under a controlled 600 W microwave power for 4 min irradiation time at 80 oC temperature. Then MAE crude aqueous extract was divided in to two portions. The first portion was fractionated first with chloroform to distunguish caffeine then ethyl acetate for catechins. Caffeine and catechins were successfully separated. Second portion was freeze-dried and obtained lyophilized solid was used for SFE. Caffeine (3.68% extract yield)  was successfully separated from catechins with SFE at 250 bar and 60°C for 180 min. Constituents of the extracts were determined (caffeine and four catechins namely EGC, EC, C, EGCG) by HPLC to evaluate the effectiveness of the separation.

Article Details

Sending to International Journal of Secondary Metabolite
Author Biographies

Gönül Serdar, Karadeniz Technical University

Department of Central Research Laboratory, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey

Ezgi Demir, Konya Food and Agriculture University

Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Konya Food and Agriculture University, Konya, TURKEY

Münevver Sökmen, Konya Food and Agriculture University

Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering and Arhitecture, Konya Food and Agriculture University, Konya, Turkey


[1]. Park, H.S., Choi, HK, Lee, S.J., Park, K.W., Choi, S.G., Kim, K.H. (2007). Effect of mass transfer on the removal of caffeine from green tea by supercritical carbon dioxide. J. Supercrit. Fluids., 42, 205-2111.
[2]. Pan, X., Niu, G., Liu, H. (2003). Microwave-assisted extraction of tea polyphenols and tea caffeine from green tea leaves. Chem. Eng. Process, 42, 129-133.
[3]. Stone, M.H., Fleck, S.J., Kraemer, W.J., Triplett N.T. (1991). Health- and performance-related potential of resistance training. Sports Med., 11, 210-231.
[4]. Chu, D.C. and Juneja, L.R. (1997). General Chemical Composition of Green Tea and Its Infusion. In: Yamamoto, T., Juneja, L.R., Chu, D.C. and Kim, M., Eds., Chemistry and Applications of Green Tea, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 13-22.
[5]. Perva-Uzunalic, A., Skerget, M., Knez, Z., Weinreich, B., Otto, F., Gruner, S. (2006). Extraction of active ingredients from green tea (Camellia sinensis): Extraction efficiency of major catechins and caffeine. Food Chem., 96, 597-605.
[6]. Wang, L., Qin, P., Hu, Y. (2010). Study on the microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenols from tea. Frontiers Chem. Eng., 4, 307-313.
[7]. Gupta, S., Saha, B., Giri, A.K. (2002). Comparative antimutagenic and anticlastogenic effects of green tea and black tea: a review. Muation Res., 512(1), 37-65.
[8]. Kuroda, Y., Hara, Y. (1999). Antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activity of tea polyphenols. Muation Res., 436(1), 69-97.
[9]. Vuong, Q.V., Roach, P.D. (2013). Caffeine in Green Tea: Its Removal and Isolation. Sep. and Pur. Rev., 43, 155-174
[10]. Sun, Q.L., Hua, S., Ye, J.H., Lu, J.L., Zheng, X.Q., Liang, Y.R. (2010). J. Med. Plants Res., 4(12), 1161-1168.
[11]. Proestos, C., Komaitis, M. (2007). Application of microwave-assisted extraction to the fast extraction of plant phenolic compounds. LWT- Food Sci. and Techn., 41(4), 652-659.
[12]. Zhai, Y.J., Sun, S., Wang, Z.M., Cheng, J.H., Sun, Y.T., Wang, L., Zhang, Y.P., Zhang, H.Q., Yu, A.M. (2009). Microwave extraction of essential oils from dried fruits of illicium verum Hook. f. And Cuminum cyminum L. Using ionic liquid as the microwave absorption medium. J. Sep. Sci., 32, 3544-3549.
[13]. Zheng, J., Huang, Y., Qian, J. (2009). Extraction mechanism study of the microwave cardio‐graph (MCG). Mic. Opt. Techn. Letters, 51, 2348-2354.
[14]. Park, H.S., Lee, H.J., Shin, M.H., Lee, K.W., Lee, H., Kim, Y.S., Kim, K.O., Kim, K.H. (2007). Effects of cosolvents on the decaffeination of green tea by supercritical carbon dioxide. Food Chem., 105(3), 1011-1017.
[15]. Lee, S.M., Lee, H.S., Kim, K.H., Kim, K.O. (2009). Sensory Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability of Decaffeinated Green Teas. J. Food Sci., 74,135-141.
[16]. Kim, J.W., Kim, J.D., Kim, J., Oh, S.G., Lee, Y.W. (2008). Selective caffeine removal from green tea using supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. J. Food Eng., 89(3), 303-309.
[17]. Büyüktuncel, E. (2012). Gelişmiş Ekstraksiyon Teknikleri. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eczacılık Fakültesi Dergisi, 32(2), 209-242.
[18]. Bimakr, M., Rahman R.A., Taip F.S., Ganjloo A., Salleh L.M., Selamat J., Hamid A., Zaidul I.S.M.(2011). Comparison of different extraction methods for the extraction of major bioactive flavonoid compounds from spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) leaves. Food Bioprod. Process, 89, 67-72.
[19]. Maran, J.P., Manikandan, S., Priya, B., Gurumoorthi, P. (2013). Box-Behnken Design Based Multi-Response Analysis and Optimization of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Bioactive Flavonoid Compounds from Tea (Camellia Sinensisl.) Leaves. J. Food Sci. and Techn., 52(1), 92-104.
[20]. Chang, C.J., Chiu, K.L., Chen, Y.L., Chang, C.Y.(2000). Separation of catechins from green tea using carbon dioxide extraction. Food Chem., 68, 109-113.
[21]. Pereira, C.G., Angela, M., Meireles, A. (2010). Supercritical fluid extraction of bioactive compounds: fundamentals, applications and economic aspects. Food Bioprocess Technol., 3, 340-372.
[22]. Serdar, G., Demir, E., Bayrak, S., Sökmen, M. (2016). New approaches for effective microwave assisted extraction of caffeine and catechins from green tea. Int. J. Sec. Met., 3, 3-13.
[23]. Serdar, G., Demir, E., Sökmen, M. (2017). Recycling of Tea Waste: Simple and Effective Separation of Caffeine and Catechins by Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE). Int. J. Sec. Met., 4, 78-89.
[24]. Deng, C.H., Ji, J., Yu, Y.J., Duan, G.L., Zhang, X.M. (2006). Fast determination of curcumol, curdione and germacrone in three species of Curcuma rhizomes by microwave-assisted extraction followed by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographymass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A., 1117, 115-120.
[25]. Sökmen, M., Demir, E., Alomar, S.Y. (2018). Optimization of sequential supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of caffeine and catechins from green tea. The J. Supercritical Fluids., 133(1), p.171-176.
[26]. Demir, E. (2015). Isolation of caffeine and cateshins from fresh tea and balck tea waste with different extraction methods. PhD Thesis, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, Turkey.
[27]. Wang, K., Liu, F., Liu, Z., Huang, J., Xu, Z., Li, Y., Chen, J., Gong, Y., Yang, X. (2011). Comparison of catechins and volatile compounds among different types of tea using high performance liquid chromatograph and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer. Int. J. Food Sci.& Techol., 46, 1406-1412.