Kirkpatrick Model: Its Limitations as Used in Higher Education Evaluation
Keywords:Kirkpatrick model, Program evaluation, Higher education, Limitation, Review
One of the widely known evaluation models adapted to education is the Kirkpatrick model. However, this model has limitations when used by evaluators especially in the complex environment of higher education. Addressing the scarcity of a collective effort on discussing these limitations, this review paper aims to present a descriptive analysis of the limitations of the Kirkpatrick evaluation model in the higher education ﬁeld. Three themes of limitations were found out: propensity towards the use of the lower levels of the model; rigidity wich leaves out other essential aspects of the evaluand; and paucity of evidence on the causal chains among the levels. It is suggested that, when employing the Kirkpatrick model in higher education, evaluators should address these limitations by considering more appropriate methods, integrating contextual inputs in the evaluation framework, and establishing causal relationships among the levels. These suggestions to address the limitations of the model are discussed at the end of the study.
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